### Art of the Timepiece

##### February 8 - April 4, 2014

Main, Garage & Badami Gallery

In this unprecedented, gallery-wide exhibit, the Kimball Art Center will explore the history of our incessant journey to progressively master time, as well as the art and science of making and adorning timepieces.

Since the dawn of civilization, humans have created timekeeping devices of ever-increasing precision, which have had a profound impact on the framework of life and society. From the rudimentary, ancient Egyptian Shadow Clocks to the modern, ultra-accurate Atomic Clocks, this exhibition traces mankind’s unrelenting quest for excellence by creating instruments of staggering complexity and beauty – devices which marry both the disciplines of art and science.

For the first time ever, visitors will discover the expansive collection of Karol Renau’s extraordinary timepieces as well as his intimate photography of the hidden art within. Discover exceptional watches on loan from O.C. Tanner, as well as the timepiece-based jewelry of artists Krysia Renau and Stacy Sherr.

A.R.T.S. School Tours of this educational exhibit are available free of charge thanks to funding from Vail Resorts and Canyons. To schedule a free school tour please contact artstours@kimballartcenter.org.

The Kimball Art Center is open 7 days a week and admission is free of charge.

### Background Information

#### History of Watchmaking

#### Circular Didactic Panels

__Verge Fusee Pocket Watches & Movements__The verge (or crown wheel) escapement is the earliest known type of mechanical escapement, the mechanism in a mechanical clock that controls its rate by advancing the gear train at regular intervals or 'ticks'. Verge escapements were used from the 14th century until the mid 19th century in clocks and pocket watches. The name verge comes from the Latin virga, meaning stick or rod.

Its invention is important in the history of technology, because it made possible the development of all-mechanical clocks. This caused a shift from measuring time by continuous processes, such as the flow of liquid inwater clocks, to repetitive, oscillatory processes, such as the swing of pendulums, which had the potential to be more accurate.

Verge escapements were used in virtually all clocks and watches for 400 years. Then the increase in accuracy due to the introduction of the pendulum and balance spring in the mid 17th century focused attention on error caused by the escapement. By the 1820’s, the verge was superseded by better escapements, though many examples of mid 19th century verge watches exist, as they were much cheaper by this time.

In pocket watches, besides its inaccuracy, the vertical orientation of the crown wheel and the need for a bulky fusee made the verge movement unfashionably thick. French watchmakers adopted the thinner cylinder escapement, invented in 1695. In England, high end watches went to the duplex escapement, developed in 1782, but inexpensive verge fusee watches continued to be produced until the mid 19th century, when the lever escapement took over.

*From Wikipedia*__Chinese Duplex Pocket Watches & Movements__The duplex is a frictional rest escapement; the balance is never totally free from the escapement because of the tooth resting against the roller. As in the chronometer, there is little sliding friction during impulse since pallet and impulse tooth are moving almost parallel, so little lubrication is needed. However it lost favor to the lever; its tight tolerances and sensitivity to shock made duplex watches unsuitable for active people. Like the chronometer, it is not self-starting and is vulnerable to "setting”; if a sudden jar stops the balance during its CW swing, it can't get started again.

Some duplex pocket watches, like those shown, were made for the Chinese market in the late 1800’s, often by Swiss watchmakers.

*From Wikipedia*__The Great American Railroad Pocket Watch__The rise of railroading during the last half of the 19th century led to the widespread use of pocket watches. A famous train wreck on the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern Railway in Kipton, Ohio on April 19, 1891 occurred because one of the engineers' watches had stopped for four minutes. The railroad officials commissioned Webb C. Ball as their Chief Time Inspector, in order to establish precision standards and a reliable timepiece inspection system for Railroad chronometers. This led to the adoption in 1893 of stringent standards for pocket watches used in railroading. These railroad-grade pocket watches, as they became colloquially known, had to meet the General Railroad Timepiece Standards adopted in 1893 by almost all railroads.

The minimum requirements were raised several times as watch-making technology progressed, and the watch companies produced newer, even more reliable models. By World War II, many railroads required watches that were of a much higher grade (as many as 23 jewels, for example) than those made to comply with the original 1893 standard.

*From Wikipedia*__Hunter Case & Open Face Pocket Watches__There are two main styles of pocket watch, the hunter-case pocket watch, and the open-face pocket watch.

A hunter-case pocket watch ("hunter") is the kind with a spring-hinged circular metal lid or cover, that closes over the watch-dial and crystal, protecting them from dust, scratches and other damage or debris. The majority of antique and vintage hunter-case watches have the lid-hinges at the 9 o'clock position and the stem, crown and bow of the watch at the 3 o'clock position. Modern hunter-case pocket watches usually have the hinges for the lid at the 6 o'clock position and the stem, crown and bow at the 12 o'clock position, as with open-face watches.

There is an intermediate type, known as the demi-hunter (demi hunter, half hunter or half-hunter), in which the outer lid has a glass panel in the center giving a view of the hands.

An open-faced, or Lépine watch, is one in which the case lacks a metal cover to protect the crystal. It is typical for an open-faced watch to have the pendant located at 12:00 and the sub-second dial located at 6:00.

After 1908, watches approved for railroad service were required to be cased in open-faced cases with the winding stem at 12:00.

*From Wikipedia*__Chronographs (Military & Medical) & Very Thin Pocket Watches__A chronograph is a specific type of watch that is used as a stopwatch combined with a display watch. A basic chronograph has an independent sweep second hand; it can be started, stopped, and returned to zero by successive pressure on the stem. Less simple chronographs use additional complications and can have more than one independent hand to measure seconds, minutes, hours and even tenths of a second. Louis Moinetinvented the chronograph in 1816 for use in tracking astronomical objects. Chronographs were also used heavily in artillery fire in the mid to late 1800's. In the second half of the 19th century, watch makers designed true medical chronographs, on which, the graduations on the dials counted the number of heartbeats or breaths per minute.

More modern uses of chronographs involve piloting airplanes, car racing, diving and submarine maneuvering.

*From Wikipedia*Between 1830 and 1860 there was a heightened interest in making very thin pocket watches. Philippe-Samuel Meylan (1772-1845) developed a caliber equipped with a cylinder escapement. With this design, it was possible to make movements only 1.18 millimeters thick.

__Watchmaker Tools__A watchmaker is an artisan who makes and repairs watches. Since a majority of watches are now factory made, most modern watchmakers solely repair watches. However, originally they were master craftsmen who built watches, including all their parts, by hand. Modern watchmakers, when required to repair older watches, for which replacement parts may not be available, must have fabrication skills, and can typically manufacture replacements for many of the parts found in a watch.

Historically, in England, watchmakers would have to undergo a seven-year apprenticeship and then join a guild, such as the Worshipful Company of Clockmakers in London, before selling their first watch. In modern times watchmakers undergo training courses such as the ones offered by the BHI, or one of the many school around the world following the WOSTEP style curriculum. Some USA watchmaking schools of horology will teach not only the wostep style including the ETA range of movements but also focuses on the older watches that a modern watchmaker will encounter on a daily basis.

__Carriage Clocks__A carriage clock is a small, spring-driven clock, designed for travelling, developed in the early 19th century in France, where they were also known as "Officers' Clocks". The first carriage clock was invented byAbraham-Louis Breguet for the Emperor Napoleon in 1812. The case, usually plain or gilt-brass, is rectangular with a carrying handle and often set with glass or more rarely enamel or porcelain panels. A feature of carriage clocks is the platform escapement, sometimes visible through a glazed aperture on the top of the case. Carriage clocks use a balance and balance spring for timekeeping and replaced the larger pendulum bracket clock.

*From Wikipedia*__Car Clocks__"Travelers have benefited from any number of portable timepieces over the years. During the 19th century, as more and more people began to travel by carriage, they needed timepieces that could travel with them. One such timepiece was the carriage clock, whose remarkably shockproof movement was perfected by the French watchmaker Abraham Louis Brequet in the late 18th century. In other instances, pocket watches were placed in leather holders that fit over the front board of the carriage. As inventors and manufacturers like Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler, Charles and J. Frank Duryea, Henry Ford, and Ransom E. Olds furthered development of the automobile, a new breed of clock was introduced—the car clock.

By 1908, speedometer companies were producing and marketing clocks as after-market accessories. Over the next decade, the car clock grew in popularity and several companies began catering to the growing market, including the Phinney-Walker Keyless Clock Company, the Warner Instrument Company, the Seth Thomas Clock Company, the Stewart Speedometer Company, the Chelsea Clock Company, and the Boston Clock Company. In some cases, there was a clear crossover between marine clocks and automobile clocks. Waltham, a major supplier of car clocks, marketed identical timepieces for both automobiles and boats.

Manufactures gave customers many choices offering models that mounted on general interior surfaces, dashboards, steering wheels, gearshifts, and rear-view mirrors. The winding mechanisms also evolved from key-wind clocks to stem-wind clocks to rim-wind clocks. During the 1930s and 1940s, electric automobile clocks were in production, but mechanical clocks were still being offered. It was not until 1950s and 1960s that electric clocks truly dominated the market, at least up until the advent of quartz technology. Today's car clocks mostly have quartz movements, however new technologies like Global Positioning Systems (GPS) are available as both production and after-market accessories."

*From the NAWCC Museum*__Space Age Clocks__The Atomic Age in design refers to the period roughly corresponding to 1940-1960, when concerns about nuclear war dominated Western society during the Cold War. Architecture, industrial design, commercial design (including advertising), interior design, and fine arts were all influenced by the themes of atomic science, as well as the Space Age, which coincided with that period. Atomic Age design became popular and instantly recognizable, with a use of atomic motifs and space age symbols. Retro-futurism is a current resurgence of interest in Atomic Age design.

Whereas Atomic Age motifs and structures leaned towards design fields such as architecture and industrial design, Space Age design spread into a broader range of consumer products, including clothing fashion, and even animation styles, as with the popular television show The Jetsons. Beginning with the dawn of the Space Age (commonly attributed to the launch of Sputnik in October, 1957), Space Age design captured the optimism and faith in technology that was felt by much of society during the 1950s and 1960s. Space Age design also had a more vernacular character, appearing in accessible forms that quickly became familiar to mainstream consumers. Space Age design became more closely associated with kitsch and with Googie architecture for popular commercial buildings such as diners, bowling alleys, and shops. "Space Age design is closely tied to the pop movement, the fusion of popular culture, art, design, and fashion".

*From Wikipedia*__Atmos Clocks (Jaeger LeCoultre)__Atmos is the brand name of a mechanical clock manufactured by Jaeger-LeCoultre in Switzerland which does not need to be wound manually. It gets the energy it needs to run from temperature and atmospheric pressure changes in the environment, and can run for years without human intervention.

Its power source is an internal hermetically sealed capsule containing a mixture of gaseous and liquid ethyl chloride, which expands into an expansion chamber as the temperature rises, compressing a spiral spring; with a fall in temperature the gas condenses and the spring slackens.

This motion constantly winds the mainspring. A temperature variation of only one degree in the range between 15 and 30 degrees Celsius, or a pressure variation of 3 mmHg, is sufficient for two days' operation.

In order to run the clock on this small amount of energy, everything inside the Atmos has to work in as friction-free a manner as possible. For timekeeping it uses a torsion pendulum, which consumes less energy than an ordinary pendulum. The torsion pendulum executes only two torsional oscillations per minute, which is 1/30th the rate of the pendulum in a grandfather clock.

*From Wikipedia*__Jaeger LeCoultre__Jaeger-LeCoultre is a luxury watch and clock manufacture based in Le Sentier, Switzerland that dates back to the first half of the nineteenth century. The brand has hundreds of inventions and over a thousand calibres to its name, including the world’s smallest calibre, the world’s most complicated wristwatch and a timepiece of near-perpetual movement. Today, Jaeger-LeCoultre offers eight distinct collections of timepieces and maintains multiple partnerships in diverse sectors, such as marine preservation, motorsports and polo.

In 1833, following his invention of a machine to cut watch pinions from steel, Antoine LeCoultre (1803-1881) founded a small watchmaking workshop in Le Sentier, where he honed his horological skills to create high-quality timepieces. In 1844, he invented the world's most precise measuring instrument, the Millionomètre and in 1847 he created a system that eliminated the need for keys to rewind and set watches. Four years later, he was awarded a gold medal for his work on timepiece precision and Mechanization at the first Universal Exhibition in London.

In 1903, Paris-based watchmaker to the French Navy, Edmond Jaeger, challenged Swiss manufacturers to develop and produce the ultra-thin movements that he had invented.

Jacques-David LeCoultre, Antoine’s grandson who was responsible for production at LeCoultre & Cie., accepted the challenge, giving rise to a collection of ultra-thin pocket watches, including the thinnest in the world in 1907, equipped with the LeCoultre Calibre 145. The same year, French jeweller Cartier, one of Jaeger’s clients, signed a contract with the Parisian watchmaker under which all Jaeger movements for a period of fifteen years would be exclusive to Cartier. The movements were produced by LeCoultre.

The collaboration between Jaeger and LeCoultre led to the company being officially renamed Jaeger-LeCoultre in 1937. However, from 1932 to approximately 1985, watches were sold in North America under the name LeCoultre, after which Jaeger-LeCoultre was adopted uniformly worldwide. According to factory records, the last movement to be used in an American LeCoultre watch was shipped out of Le Sentier in 1976.

*From Wikipedia*__Musical Clocks (Jaeger LeCoultre)__A musical clock is a clock that marks the hours of the day with a musical tune played from a spiked cylinder either on bells, organ pipes, bellows, combs and even dulcimer strings. The earliest ones began mainly in churches and would be used to mark times for the public and for farmers in fields to tell them when it was sunset, dawn and lunchtime.

*From Wikipedia*__Accutron Clocks__Bulova's "Accutron", first sold in October 1960, uses a 360 hertz tuning fork instead of a balance wheel as the timekeeping element. The inventor, Max Hetzel, was born in Basel, Switzerland, and joined the Bulova Watch Company of Bienne, Switzerland, in 1948. The tuning fork was powered by a one-transistor electronic oscillator circuit, so the Accutron qualifies as the first "electronic watch". Instead of the ticking sound made by mechanical watches, the Accutron had a faint, high pitch hum which came from the vibrating tuning fork. A forerunner of modern quartz watches which also keep time with a vibrating resonator, the Accutron was guaranteed to be accurate to a minute per month, or 2 seconds per day, considerably better than mechanical watches of the time.

__Art Deco Clocks__Clock design was heavily influenced in the 1920s and ’30s by Art Deco, a machine-like aesthetic for a fast-paced industrial age. No object escaped the streamline touch of Art Deco, including clocks, whose cases often echoed the geometric architecture of the day.

In Europe, the French and Swiss were leading producers of Art Deco clocks. The French excelled in clocks for the mantel made of marble, onyx, brass, glass, and chrome. Many of these clocks sported columns on their sides and Roman numerals on their faces. Other clocks were designed for desks. These would frequently sit on bases of marble, below which were nickel feet, with the clock flanked by a pair of inkwells, which most contemporary collectors today use for paper clips and other dry office items.

Some French clocks were paired with bronze figurines of, for example, Diana the Huntress, complete with ivory bow and green onyx shield. Animals were also common, with bronze, fantail doves, lovebirds, and gazelles being particularly popular choices. Beyond the desktop and mantel, the French also produced large grandfather clocks in the Art Deco style, some of which were made of rosewood with silver-finished faces and clear glass on the clocks’ pendulum doors.

*From Wikipedia*__Electronic Quartz Clocks__A quartz clock is a clock that uses an electronic oscillator that is regulated by a quartz crystal to keep time. This crystal oscillator creates a signal with very precise frequency, so that quartz clocks are at least an order of magnitude more accurate than mechanical clocks. Generally, some form of digital logic counts the cycles of this signal and provides a numeric time display, usually in units of hours, minutes, and seconds. The first quartz clock was built in 1927 by Warren Marrison and J.W. Horton at Bell Telephone Laboratories. Since the 1980s when the advent of solid state digital electronics allowed them to be made compact and inexpensive, quartz timekeepers have become the world's most widely used timekeeping technology, used in most clocks and watches, as well as computers and other appliances that keep time.

#### Karol Renau - Art of the Timepiece

Originally from Warsaw, Poland, Karol Renau has been taking pictures since the young age of six. Allowed access to a family-owned and run photography studio, Renau began to self-develop his own film at 13 or 14 years of age.

These images shown are a combination of Karol’s enthusiasm for historical and modern timepieces. He captures with his abilities the beauty developed and skill necessary by watchmakers in order to create these timeless objects. Although he has been collecting watches for the last ten years, the self-taught “fixer” only began to tinker with broken watches due to sleepless nights and probable insomnia after the launch of a company he had begun with his wife.

The first watch that Karol learned to fix, from various videos and tutorials he had found on the web, was a cheap ten-dollar, Elgin pocket watch.

It is a strategy game of sorts for Karol to further piece together material that he has amassed. He has discovered resourceful means of finding or recreating missing aspects of his timepieces. From creating replicas of parts—which has proved rather difficult—to purchasing other watches for the parts he needs, he constructs a vicious cycle for his admirable devotion, desiring to mend what he had originally obtained for parts.

In breaking down these watches, which can take the use of a microscope, Karol discovered more hidden treasures within the faces and interiors of pocket watches. Intrigued by the significant amount of detail, he began documenting the master artistry of engravings and paintings by watchmakers. These photographs displayed are images captured within the last two years.

*The Buying Time Jewelry Line*, created by

Stacy Sherr & Chad Knapp

Stacy Sherr is a local Artist. She has shown in many galleries on Park City’s Historic Main Street, the Park Silly Sunday Market, and as a member of the Park City Professional Artist Association.

With the skill and knowledge of Master Jeweler Chad Knapp, these parts are set in fine silver and then embellished with high-end gem stones. Chad and Stacy crossed paths years ago whilst working together at Tommy Knockers Jewelry Store. Stacy was so impressed with Chad’s talent and ability to fix every item of broken jewelry that came through the store. Stacy inquired if she could apprentice under Chad. At that time Chad had a jewelry store in Lehi, Utah, therefore, the two would commute to the city every day. He offered cash for gold exchange, which resulted in adding to Stacy’s large pocket watch collection.

Stacy has traveled the world collecting all sorts of unique treasures from which to create jewelry—a dedication of 39 years—and she came across her first watch parts in New Orleans 15 years ago. Though many have tried to copy her style, none have come close to the style with which she treats each watch part; as if they are precious stones.

With Chad’s skill and Stacy’s creativity the sky became the limit. Today you can enjoy what Stacy and Chad have created with their love of jewelry and watches. A true “American Dream” of excellence!!!

### Technology for the Classroom

The following websites include cross curriculum lesson plans, education information and fun, interactive games. By using these websites and creating pre and post visit activities in your classroom, children will be more involved and retain more knowledge about these subjects. Please visit these following website links.

- Travel through time as kids learn how to tell time on both analog and digital clocks in this fun time telling game.

abcya.com/telling_time - Extra lesson plans on telling time with fun classroom activities.

time-for-time.com/lessons - Older students can learn about time management for projects, lessons, homework and out of school activities.

pbskids.org - Time Management - Help your student understand time with these fun activities and books.

pbs.org/parents - Telling Time - Learn how clocks work and watch videos about clocks, includes lesson plans and assessment for teachers.

pbslearningmedia.org - How Clocks Work - Learn about super accurate strontium optical lattice clock and how it may be used in the future.

news.nationalgeographic.com - Atomic Clocks - Older students can learn about how to Arctic mammals time doesn’t matter.

news.nationalgeographic.com - Arctic Birds and Time - Older kids can read about the idea of time travel.

news.nationalgeographic.com - Time Travel, Grandfather Paradox

### Kindergarten

#### Materials

- Teachers should have a background of learning requirements per grade as well as a general understanding of visual art.
- Images from the Art of the Timepiece exhibition as examples of clocks.
- White paper or a clock worksheet.
- Pencils, Erasers, Crayons, Markers

#### Intended Learning Outcomes

- Students learn that time is important during our day. It tells us when its time to do something.
- Students learn that we do things at different times and at same times.
- Students learn that time is told by numbers and there are 3 hands on a clock, seconds, minutes, hours.
- Students learn that there are parts of the day that we can use to estimate time.
- Students estimate time to the nearest hour or half hour.

#### Instructional Procedures

- The teacher introduces students to the concept of time. Teacher leads students by asking: How do I know when it is time for school to start? How do I know when it is time to take you all to lunch? How do I know it is time to take you to recess? How do I know when it is time to get you ready to go home for the day? Explain to students that we use a clock and that a clock keeps track of time. It is important that our clocks all run at the same speed and match other classrooms (or even our parents watch), so that we keep on a schedule track. If we didn’t have time, we would all show up to school at different times.
- Show students an analog clock. (You can take the one from your classroom down, or if you have a teaching clock, use that one. Explain to students that we like to divide the day up into parts that help us tell time. Morning, Afternoon, Evening/Night. Call out different things you do during the day, and ask students to say what part of the day it would be. For example:

- What time of day do you eat breakfast, lunch and dinner?
- What time of day do you brush your teeth?
- What time of day do you go to school?
- What time of day do you go home from school?
- What time of day do you do your homework?
- What time of day do you read books?
- What time of day do you play outside?
- What time of day do you sleep?
- What time of day do you get dressed?
- What time of day do you put your PJ’s on?
- What time of day do you exercise?

- Students may have different answers, and that is okay, remind students we often do things at different times. In order to stay on schedule, we have clocks to help us stay on time. Clocks tell us the seconds, minutes and hours of the day. Show students the hands of the clock and point out each. Seconds are fastest, Minutes are 60 seconds going by, and hours are the slowest, and are 60 minutes going by. There are 24 hours in a day. Practice telling time on a clock by hours and half hours (mention that when the minute hand is on the 6, it means that it is 30 minutes past the hour, we call this a half hour or thirty.
- Now ask students the same question above. See if they can estimate to the nearest hour or half hour what time they do the things they do. For example, I eat breakfast at 7:00 in the morning. I go to school at 8:00 in the morning. I read books at 6:30 at night. I eat my dinner at 5:00 at night. I sleep at 8:00 at night. Remember, students will have different responses.
- Remind students that time is important. Although something we all do at different times, other things like when we go to school, eat lunch as a class, or go home from school should be at the same time. Teacher tells students that in order to keep us all on time, there are clocks everywhere. Some clocks are like analog clocks and have hands etc. There are also watches, digital clocks and community clocks. Ask students to think and talk about where clocks are and why they think its important in those places. For example: There is a clock in my parent’s car. There is a clock on my parents cell phone. There is a clock on the microwave, or oven (why are clocks important in the kitchen?), There is a clock on my dresser in my room (alarm clock to wake up).
- Have students identify what time they go to school, leave school and eat lunch. Each student should have the same answer. Write answers on a black or white board so all students can read the numbers.
- Give students a piece of white paper. Using a circle pattern or a clock worksheet.(note, it is difficult for students to properly space and place the numbers 1 – 12, teachers can do this or create lines where the numbers should be placed) Ask students to choose either school start time, lunch time, or school end time and to correctly place the hour and minute hand. Teachers can write time on board both as digital time and analog time. Ask students to draw pictures of the time they chose and what they would be doing around their clock picture. (For example if a student chooses to draw a clock at 8:00 in the morning, there may be a sun out in the sky, they might depict how they get to school, Bus, Bike, Walk, Drive) and they might include a picture of themselves and the school.
- After students have completed the project, allow a few of them to discuss the times that we all do things together, showing their clock pictures.

#### Assessment

- Students should be able to discuss what time it is when they need to do certain things throughout their day.
- Students should be able to estimate time both by telling what part of the day it is and by estimating time to the nearest hour.
- Students identify things that they need to be ontime for, or things that they do at the same time.
- Students identify things that they do at different times.
- Students have the ability to draw a minute and hour hand to tell what time they should be doing something similar (like going to lunch, going to school, going home for the day.
- Students show that they can properly use art materials and create a correct image and scene at which they do certain things.

### First Grade

#### Core Curriculum Ties

**MATHEMATICS**

Grade 1 Overview

Operations and Algebraic Thinking

- Add and subtract within 20.

Relate counting to addition and subtraction (e.g., by counting on 2 to add 2).

Understand place value.

- Understand that the two digits of a two-digit number represent amounts of tens and ones. Understand the following as special cases:
- 10 can be thought of as a bundle of ten ones—called a “ten.”
- The numbers from 11 to 19 are composed of a ten and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
- The numbers 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 refer to one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine tens (and 0 ones).

Measurement and Data

Tell and write time.

- Tell and write time in hours and half-hours using analog and digital clocks.

Geometry

Reason with shapes and their attributes.

- Compose two-dimensional shapes (rectangles, squares, trapezoids, triangles, half-circles, and quarter-circles) or three-dimensional shapes (cubes, right rectangular prisms, right circular cones, and right circular cylinders) to create a composite shape, and compose new shapes from the composite shape.

**VISUAL ARTS**

Standard 1 (Making): The student will explore and refine the application of media, techniques, and artistic processes.

Objective 3: Handle art materials in a safe and responsible manner.

- Ventilate the room to avoid inhaling fumes from art materials.
- Dispose and/or recycle waste art materials properly.
- Clean and put back to order art making areas after projects.
- Respect other students' artworks as well as one's own.

Standard 3 (Expressing): The student will choose and evaluate artistic subject matter, themes, symbols, ideas, meanings, and purposes.

Objective 1: Explore possible content and purposes in significant works of art.

- Discuss how an artist's work might be different if it is displayed publicly as opposed to being displayed at home.

Objective 2: Discuss, evaluate, and choose symbols, ideas, subject matter, meanings, and purposes for their own artworks.

- Judge which works of art most clearly communicate through the use of symbols.
- Create symbols in art that express individual or group interests.
- Create a work of art that uses a similar subject matter, symbol, idea, and/or meaning found in a significant work of art.
- Select some art for public display around the school.

#### Materials

- Teachers should have a background of learning requirements per grade as well as a general understanding of Visual Art.
- Images from the Art of the Timepiece exhibition as examples (images on a computer screen will work for this lesson, but printed images will be better for students)
- White paper or a clock worksheet.
- Pencils, Erasers, Crayons, Markers

#### Intended Learning Outcomes

- Students will understand the importance of time keeping.
- Students will experience telling time digitally and with an analog clock.
- Students will think about where clocks are located in our schools, homes, communities.
- Students will handle art materials in a proper way
- Students will work together using cross curriculum objectives.

#### Instructional Procedures

- The teacher introduces students to the concept of time. Teacher leads students by asking: How do I know when it is time for school to start? How do I know when it is time to take you all to lunch? How do I know it is time to take you to recess? How do I know when it is time to get you ready to go home for the day? Explain to students that we use a clock and that a clock keeps track of time. It is important that our clocks all run at the same speed and match other classrooms (or even our parents watch), so that we keep on a schedule track. If we didn’t have time, we would all show up to school at different times.
- Teachers discuss that humans have been keeping time for a long time. Ancient civilizations would keep time by measuring the position of the sun with their hands… this is why hands on a clock are called such.
- Show students an analog and digital clock. (You can take the one from your classroom down, or if you have a teaching clock, use that one for a digital clock, you could use a cell phone or clock on a tablet or ipad.). Explain to students that we like to divide the day up into parts that help us tell time. Morning, Afternoon, Evening/Night. Call out different things you do during the day, and ask students to say what part of the day it would be. For example:
- What time of day do you eat breakfast, lunch and dinner?
- What time of day do you brush your teeth?
- What time of day do you go to school?
- What time of day do you go home from school?
- What time of day do you do your homework?
- What time of day do you read books?
- What time of day do you play outside?
- What time of day do you sleep?
- What time of day do you get dressed?
- What time of day do you put your PJ’s on?
- What time of day do you exercise?

- Students may have different answers, and that is okay, remind students we often do things at different times. In order to stay on schedule, we have clocks to help us stay on time. Clocks tell us the seconds, minutes and hours of the day. Show students the hands of the clock and point out each. Seconds are fastest, Minutes are 60 seconds going by, and hours are the slowest, and are 60 minutes going by. There are 24 hours in a day. Practice telling time on a clock by hours and half hours (mention that when the minute hand is on the 6, it means that it is 30 minutes past the hour, we call this a half hour or thirty. Show students that each number 1 – 12 represents 5 minutes of time. Practice counting by fives. Make note, are there 4 tick marks or 5 tick marks between each number on the clock? Why are there only 4 and not 5? (Because the big numbers represent each 5th minute.
- Now show students a digital clock. Usually on a digital clock, we only see hours and minutes. Sometimes we see seconds. Explain to students that most people keep time using 12 hours, twice, making 24 hours. Sometimes people keep military time, and they base time on 24 hours, and don’t start counting again after 12. Practice having students write correct times for things as on a digital clock and analog clock. Answers may be different but should make sense (for instance, students shouldn’t say they eat lunch at 8:00.
- Now ask students the same question above. See if they can estimate to the nearest five minute interval and hour what time they do the things they do. For example, I eat breakfast at 7:15 in the morning. I go to school at 8:05 in the morning. I read books at 6:45 at night. I eat my dinner at 5:25 at night. I sleep at 8:00 at night. Remember, students will have different responses.
- Remind students that time is important. Although something we all do at different times, other things like when we go to school, eat lunch as a class, or go home from school should be at the same time. Teacher tells students that in order to keep us all on time, there are clocks everywhere. Some clocks are like analog clocks and have hands etc. There are also watches, digital clocks and community clocks. Ask students to think and talk about where clocks are and why they think its important in those places. For example: There is a clock in my parent’s car. There is a clock on my parents’ cell phone. There is a clock on the microwave, or oven (why are clocks important in the kitchen?), There is a clock on my dresser in my room (alarm clock to wake up). In these places, are clocks analog clocks or digital clocks?
- Have students identify what time they go to school, leave school and eat lunch. Each student should have the same answer. Write answers on a black or white board so all students can read the numbers. Do this in both digital and analog form.
- Give students a piece of white paper. Using a circle pattern or a clock worksheet.(note, it is difficult for students to properly space and place the numbers 1 – 12, teachers can do this or create lines where the numbers should be placed. Teachers can also do this with students by starting to ask what number should be written first (students will say 1, the answer is to start with 12. Once we write the 12, what number is next? The easiest way to space our numbers is to write the numbers that are directly across from each other… what number is across from 12? Answer 6, show students how and where to write in the 6. Continue with this lesson, marking the 3 and 9 and then filling in the 2 numbers between 12 and 3, 3 and 6, 6 and 9, 9 and 12.))
- On the same piece of paper, have students draw a rectangle. Tell students in the next steps they are going to write time digitally.
- Ask students to choose either school start time, lunch time, or school end time or their favorite time of day and to correctly place the hour and minute hand by drawing them in on the analog clock. Then ask students to write the same time on their digital clock. Teachers can write time on board both as digital time and analog time as example.. Ask students to draw pictures of the time they chose and what they would be doing around their clock picture. (For example if a student chooses to draw a clock at 8:00 in the morning, there may be a sun out in the sky, they might depict how they get to school, Bus, Bike, Walk, Drive and they might include a picture of themselves and the school.)
- After students have completed the project, allow a few of them to discuss the times that we all do things together, showing their clock pictures.

#### Assessment

- Students should be able to count by 1s, 2s, 5s, and 10s.
- Students should be able to identify the difference between analog and digital clocks.
- Students should be able to write time both in analog clock style and digitally.
- Student show they understand minute and hour hand by making them the correct sizes in comparison to each other.
- Students should be able to round to the nearest 5th minute when telling time.
- Students should be able to think and estimate times at which they do certain activities during the day.
- Students handle art materials in proper ways, making sure to respect each others work and clean up properly.

### Second Grade

#### Core Curriculum Ties

**Mathematics**

Number and Operations in Base Ten 2.NBT Understand place value.

- Count within 1000; skip-count by 5s, 10s, and 100s.
- Read and write numbers to 1000 using base-ten numerals, number names, and expanded form.

Measurement and Data

Work with time and money.

- Tell and write time from analog and digital clocks to the nearest five minutes, using a.m. and p.m.

Geometry

- Partition circles and rectangles into two, three, or four equal shares, describe the shares using the words halves, thirds, half of, a third of, etc., and describe the whole as two halves, three thirds, four fourths. Recognize that equal shares of identical wholes need not have the same shape.

**VISUAL ARTS**

Standard 1 (Making): The student will explore and refine the application of media, techniques, and artistic processes.

Objective 1: Explore a variety of art materials while learning new techniques and processes.

- Practice using skills for beginning drawings; e.g., blocking-in, stick figures, or drawing the action or gesture of a figure.
- Use simplified forms, such as cones, spheres, and cubes, to begin drawing more complex forms.
- Paint with complementary color schemes.
- Make one color dominant in a painting (monochromatic).

Objective 3: Handle art materials in a safe and responsible manner.

- Ventilate the room to avoid inhaling fumes from art materials.
- Dispose and/or recycle waste art materials properly.
- Clean and put back to order art making areas after projects.
- Respect other students' artworks as well as one's own.

#### Materials

- Teachers should have a background of learning requirements per grade as well as a general understanding of visual art for grade level requirements.
- Images from the Art of the Timepiece exhibition as examples.
- Drawing paper
- Pencils
- Coloring utensils such as markers, crayons or colored pencils.

#### Intended Learning Outcomes

- Students will understand the importance of time keeping.
- Students will experience telling time digitally and with an analog clock.
- Students will think about where clocks are located in our schools, homes, communities.
- Students will handle art materials in a proper way.
- Students will work together using cross curriculum objectives.

#### Instructional Procedures

- The teacher reviews the concept of time with the students. Lead students in a conversation, prompting them to remember how to tell time (what does the long hand represent?, what does the short hand represent?, How many hours are in a day? How many minutes are in an hour?)
- Teachers discuss that humans have been keeping time for a long time. Ancient civilizations would keep time by measuring the position of the sun with their hands… this is why hands on a clock are called such. During Ancient times, civilizations could tell time to the nearest hour. Now we keep track of time to the nearest minute for most. Sometimes, certain professions make us keep time to the nearest second.
- Show students an analog and digital clock. (You can take the one from your classroom down, or if you have a teaching clock, use that one for a digital clock, you could use a cell phone or clock on a tablet or ipad.). Explain to students that we like to divide the day up into parts that help us tell time. Morning, Afternoon, Evening/Night. Call out different things you do during the day, and ask students to say what part of the day it would be. For example:
- What time of day do you eat breakfast, lunch and dinner?
- What time of day do you brush your teeth?
- What time of day do you go to school?
- What time of day do you go home from school?
- What time of day do you do your homework?
- What time of day do you read books?
- What time of day do you play outside?
- What time of day do you sleep?
- What time of day do you get dressed?
- What time of day do you put your PJ’s on?
- What time of day do you exercise?

- Students may have different answers, and that is okay, remind students we often do things at different times. In order to stay on schedule, we have clocks to help us stay on time. We currently use a time keeping system in which we use 12 hour parts of the day. We have adopted the abbreviations a.m. and p.m. to describe what time of day it is. Show students that each number 1 – 12 represents 5 minutes of time and also represents each hour of a 12 hour cycle. Explain to students that most people keep time using 12 hours, twice, making 24 hours. Sometimes Practice counting by fives. Practice telling time given the situations asked above using a.m. and p.m. Make note, are there 4 tick marks or 5 tick marks between each number on the clock? Why are there only 4 and not 5? (Because the big numbers represent each 5th minute.)
- Now show students a digital clock. Usually on a digital clock, we only see hours and minutes. Sometimes we see seconds. Sometimes people keep military time, and they base time on 24 hours, and don’t start counting again after 12. Practice having students write correct times for things as on a digital clock and analog clock. Students must answer with time and correct abbreviation (a.m. or p.m.)Answers may be different but should make sense (for instance, students shouldn’t say they eat lunch at 12:00 a.m., they eat lunch at 12:00 p.m., you should be sleeping at 12:00 a.m. Please note that 11:59 p.m. is the last minute of each day. 12:00 a.m. begins a new day.
- Now ask students the same question above. See if they can estimate to the nearest five minute interval and hour what time they do the things they do. For example, I eat breakfast at 7:15 in the morning. I go to school at 8:05 in the morning. I read books at 6:45 at night. I eat my dinner at 5:25 at night. I sleep at 8:00 at night. Remember, students will have different responses but should be able to write time with the correct abbreviation.
- Remind students that time is important. Sometimes we come up with sayings for what time it is such as half past an hour, a quarter past, 15 minutes to (a certain hour). Clocks can be divided up into equal parts just like fractions. Ask students to describe how they would equally divide the clock in half, quarters, sixths… Students should view a clock as a pizza pie! With the center being the middle of the clock. Draw on the board quarters, halves, and sixths. Now ask students to estimate time using fractions. Quiz them. What time is it if it is a quarter til 3:30. What time is it if it is half past 3:25 etc… start out easy, then get harder down to the 5 minute mark.
- Have students write down things they do during the day. What time do they get out of bed, what time do they catch the bus or car for school? What time do they eat lunch? What time do they have to be at an after school activity? What time do they eat dinner? Ask students to write this out using a.m. and p.m. abbreviations.
- Give students a piece of white paper. Ask them to draw 5 circles down the left side of their paper. On the other side draw 5 rectangles. Explain to students that they are going to compare what they do at opposite times of the day. For example, First clock is positioned at 8:00 a.m., student should write 8:00 p.m. on digital clock. Then write a sentence below as such.

**Analog Clock**- At 8:00 am, I go to school.
- At 7:10 am, I go to the bus stop for school.
- At 12:30 pm, I have a soccer game.

**Digital**- At eight o'clock pm, I go to bed.
- At seven-ten pm, I brush my teeth and get ready for bed.
- At twelve-thirty am, I will be sleeping.

- Note, it is difficult for students to properly space and place the numbers 1 – 12, teachers can do this or create lines where the numbers should be placed. Teachers can also do this with students by starting to ask what number should be written first (students will say 1, the answer is to start with 12. Once we write the 12, what number is next? The easiest way to space our numbers is to write the numbers that are directly across from each other (or the number that is half way around)… what number is across from 12? Answer 6, show students how and where to write in the 6. Continue with this lesson, marking the 3 and 9 (quarters) and then filling in the 2 numbers between 12 and 3, 3 and 6, 6 and 9, 9 and 12. (sixths)).
- Each pair of clocks (digital and analog) time should match using abbreviations as well as correct clock hand placement. Below each set of clocks, student will write one sentence describing what they do at that time of day with proper number names, punctuation and grammar.
- Have students color the clocks and draw pictures around the clocks depicting what they do at those times. Ask students to color their clocks using one color (monochromatic) when it is a.m. students should use primary colors and with the complementary secondary color when it is p.m.
- Have students share their clock sheets with the classes and see if any students do similar activities at the same time.

#### Assessment

- Students should be able to discuss and identify the difference between a.m. and p.m.
- Students should be able to measure time to the nearest 5 minutes.
- Students should be able to write a sentence correctly writing time in number and written form.
- Students show they know primary, secondary and complementary colors in their clock drawings.
- Students show they understand how time can be divided into fractions.
- Students compare opposite times of the day.

### Third Grade

#### Core Curriculum Ties

**MATHEMATICS**

Measurement and Data

- Tell and write time to the nearest minute and measure time intervals in minutes. Solve word problems involving addition and subtraction of time intervals in minutes, e.g., by representing the problem on a number line diagram.
- Partition shapes into parts with equal areas. Express the area of each part as a unit fraction of the whole. For example, partition a shape into 4 parts with equal area, and describe the area of each part as 1/4 of the area of the shape.

Geometry

**VISUAL ART**

Standard 1 (Making): The student will explore and refine the application of media, techniques, and artistic processes.

Objective 1: Explore a variety of art materials while learning new techniques and processes.

- Use blocking-in, gesture drawing, and/or stick figures as start-up skills for drawing.

Standard 2 (Perceiving): The student will analyze, reflect on, and apply the structures of art.

Objective 1: Analyze and reflect on works of art by their elements and principles.

- Discuss how height placement creates an illusion of depth in artworks.

Objective 2: Create works of art using the elements and principles.

- Draw the base of a distant object higher up on the drawing page than the bases of objects that are meant to be in the foreground.

#### Materials

- Teachers should have a background of learning requirements per grade as well as a general understanding of visual art for grade level requirements.
- Images from the Art of the Timepiece exhibition as examples.
- Clock images or a working clock so that students can practice telling time.
- Lined paper, pencil – for solving and creating word problems.
- White drawing paper for illustrations.
- Pencils, Colored Pencils, Crayons and Markers for creating illustrations.

#### Intended Learning Outcomes

- Students tell time to the nearest hour, half hour, quarter hour, five minute mark and minute on both analog and digital clocks.
- Students identify fractions within time telling.
- Students solve word problems using addition and subtraction.
- Students create their own word problems using time, addition and subtraction.
- Students illustrate their own word problem.
- Students use depth of field in their drawing and use gesture drawings or stick figures to depict scenes from word problems.
- Students show respect for each other’s work.

#### Instructional Procedures

- The teacher reviews the concept of time with the students. Lead students in a conversation, prompting them to remember how to tell time (what does the long hand represent?, what does the short hand represent?, How many hours are in a day? How many minutes are in an hour? How many seconds are in a minute?)
- Teachers discuss that humans have been keeping time for a long time. Ancient civilizations would keep time by measuring the position of the sun with their hands… this is why hands on a clock are called such. During Ancient times, civilizations could tell time to the nearest hour. Now we keep track of time to the nearest minute for most. Sometimes, certain professions make us keep time to the nearest second.
- Show students an analog and digital clock. (You can take the one from your classroom down, or if you have a teaching clock, use that one for a digital clock, you could use a cell phone or clock on a tablet or ipad.). Explain to students that we like to divide the day up into parts that help us tell time. Morning, Afternoon, Evening/Night. Call out different things you do during the day, and ask students to say what part of the day it would be. For example:
- What time of day do you eat breakfast, lunch and dinner?
- What time of day do you brush your teeth?
- What time of day do you go to school?
- What time of day do you go home from school?
- What time of day do you do your homework?
- What time of day do you read books?
- What time of day do you play outside?
- What time of day do you sleep?
- What time of day do you get dressed?
- What time of day do you put your PJ’s on?
- What time of day do you exercise?

- Students may have different answers, and that is okay, remind students we often do things at different times. In order to stay on schedule, we have clocks to help us stay on time. We currently use a time keeping system in which we use 12 hour parts of the day. We have adopted the abbreviations a.m. and p.m. to describe what time of day it is. Show students that each number 1 – 12 represents 5 minutes of time and also represents each hour of a 12 hour cycle. Explain to students that most people keep time using 12 hours, twice, making 24 hours. Sometimes Practice counting by fives. Practice telling time given the situations asked above using a.m. and p.m. Make note, are there 4 tick marks or 5 tick marks between each number on the clock? Why are there only 4 and not 5? (Because the big numbers represent each 5th minute.)
- Now show students a digital clock. Usually on a digital clock, we only see hours and minutes. Sometimes we see seconds. Sometimes people keep military time, and they base time on 24 hours, and don’t start counting again after 12. Practice having students write correct times for things as on a digital clock and analog clock. Students must answer with time and correct abbreviation (a.m. or p.m.)Answers may be different but should make sense (for instance, students shouldn’t say they eat lunch at 12:00 a.m., they eat lunch at 12:00 p.m., you should be sleeping at 12:00 a.m. Please note that 11:59 p.m. is the last minute of each day. 12:00 a.m. begins a new day.
- Now ask students the same question above. See if they can estimate to the nearest minute interval and hour what time they do the things they do. For example, I eat breakfast at 7:11 in the morning. I go to school at 8:06 in the morning. I read books at 6:42 at night. I eat my dinner at 5:05 at night. I sleep at 8:00 at night. Remember, students will have different responses but should be able to write time with the correct abbreviation. Ask students to compare and contrast times when it is okay to estimate time (Its almost 12:00 noon) or when it needs to be accurate (Our airplane takes off at 12:13 p.m.)
- Remind students that time is important. Sometimes we come up with sayings for what time it is such as half past an hour, a quarter past, 15 minutes to (a certain hour). Clocks can be divided up into equal parts just like fractions. Ask students to describe how they would equally divide the clock in half, thirds, quarters, sixths, what makes a whole?… Students should view a clock as a pizza, pie, or circular cake! With the center being the middle of the clock. Draw on the board quarters, halves, and sixths. Now ask students to estimate time using fractions. Quiz them. What time is it if it is a quarter til 3:30. What time is it if it is half past 3:25 etc… start out easy, then get harder down to the 5 minute mark.
- Now tell students that sometimes we have to gather information in word problems to determine the time.
Give them an example as follows (or come up with a similar situation).

Using the clues below, find out what time everyone needs to be in line for ice cream.

- Sarah is playing a soccer game. Her game ended at 12:30 p.m. and she has twelve minutes to walk to the ice cream truck. (Answer, simply add 12 minutes to 12:30 p.m;, Sarah will arrive at the ice cream truck at 12:42 p.m.)
- Joey has violin practice this afternoon at 2:05 p.m. If he meets Sarah and Alisha at the ice cream truck and it takes him half an hour to walk to the music studio, what time will he need to arrive at violin practice, if he needs to be 15 minutes early to practice to set up his music and equipment? (Answer, there is a lot of unnecessary information in this word problem to confuse us. Identify the question… Simply take the time at which Joey has to be at practice and subtract fifteen minutes, the correct answer is 1:50 p.m.)
__EXTRA challenging problem:__Alisha has been at tennis practice this morning. Alisha has promised to meet Sarah and Joey for ice cream and needs to be home at 1:15 p.m. to take her dog for a walk. It takes Alisha 6 minutes to walk home from the ice cream truck. If her tennis practice ends at 11:55 a.m. and it takes her 17 minutes to walk to the ice cream truck, what is the latest time she can leave the tennis courts to meet Sarah and Joey if she wants to see them for at least 5 minutes? (This problem also has a lot of extra information to confuse us. Identify the question at hand (what is the latest time she can leave the tennis courts to meet Sarah and Joey if she wants to see them for at least 5 minutes). Start here, Alisha has to be home at 1:15 p.m. to walk her dog. She must leave the ice cream truck with six minutes before she has to be home. 1:15 p.m. – 6 minutes = 1:09 p.m.

FUTHER, now that we know Alisha cannot leave any later than 1:09 p.m. from meeting her friends, we can subtract another 17 minutes (time it takes her to walk to the ice cream truck), and another 5 minutes (to hang out with her friends) from this and know that the latest Alisha can leave the tennis courts is 12: 47 p.m.

- Give students a piece of paper (lined) and ask them to write a simple math word problem using time and words. Each student will come up with their own word problem as well as solve their own word problem. Teachers will check students problems for accuracy. Students should not share their word problems with other students, as this will be done in further steps.
- Have students illustrate their word problem. Students use the illusion of depth in their artworks by creating a horizon line, placing far away objects in above the horizon line and smaller, and closer items in front of the horizon line and larger. Allow students to use crayons, markers, and colored pencils to finish their drawings. Require students to place an image of time referenced in their word problem in their illustration by drawing an analog or digital clock in their drawing.
- Once word math problems and drawings are complete, allow students time to share and solve each other’s word problems. Hang the word problems and illustrations for the school to see and show how different students solved the problems.

### Fourth Grade

#### Core Curriculum Ties

**MATHEMATICS**

Measurement and Data

Geometric measurement: understand concepts of angle and measure angles.

- Recognize angles as geometric shapes that are formed wherever two rays share a common endpoint, and understand concepts of angle measurement:
- An angle is measured with reference to a circle with its center at the common endpoint of the rays, by considering the fraction of the circular arc between the points where the two rays intersect the circle. An angle that turns through 1/360 of a circle is called a “one-degree angle,” and can be used to measure angles.
- An angle that turns through one-degree angles is said to have an angle measure of n degrees.

Geometry

Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles.

- Draw points, lines, line segments, rays, angles (right, acute, obtuse), and perpendicular and parallel lines. Identify these in two-dimensional figures.

**VISUAL ARTS**

Objective 2: Handle art materials in a safe and responsible manner.

- Provide proper ventilation when working with art materials that give off fumes.
- Dispose and/or recycle art material wastes in a safe and appropriate manner.
- Clean and store art materials and equipment in a way that extends their life and usability.
- Clean and put back to order art making areas after projects.
- Respect other students' artworks as well as one's own.

Standard 3 (Expressing): The student will choose and evaluate artistic subject matter, themes, symbols, ideas, meanings, and purposes.

Objective 1:

- Create a work of art using inspiration from hobbies or interests.

#### Materials

- Teachers should have a background of learning requirements per grade as well as a general understanding of visual art for grade level requirements.
- Images from the Art of the Timepiece exhibition as examples.
- Clock images or a working clock so that students can practice telling time.
- Protractors (for determining angle measurements)
- Lined or graph paper and pencil – for solving angle problems.
- White drawing paper for illustrations.
- Pencils, Colored Pencils, Crayons and Markers for creating illustrations.

#### Intended Learning Outcomes

- Students will have a sound understanding of how to tell time on both analog and digital clocks.
- Students will use an analog clock to determine angles of clock hands. Students will know how to draw points, lines, angles and will understand right, acute and obtuse angles. Students will identify these in real objects.
- Students will accurately draw objects which have points, lines, angles and other mathematical shapes.

#### Instructional Procedures

- The teacher reviews the concept of time with students. Benchmark, students should be able to tell time to the nearest 1 minute using abbreviations a.m. and p.m. and understand why accurately keeping time is important.
- The teacher will display an image of their choice from the Art of the Timepiece exhibit.
- The teacher should introduce students to concepts of points, lines, and angles (review types of angles). Show students how a clock has all of these. Point is the center of the clock where the hands all meet. Lines are the hands of the clock. As the clock moves, the hands create angles.
- On a white or black board, draw several clock faces. In each clock face, create a center point of the clock. Ask students the following questions about angles in time:
- What time would it be if there was a right angle (a right angle is 90 degree angle) If the minute hand is positioned on the 12, what are the possible times it could be if the hands are at a right angle? Answer = 3:00 a.m or p.m., 9:00 a.m. or p.m.
- What time would it be if there was an obtuse angle and the hour hand is positioned at the 12? Answer = any time between 12:16 and 12:29 p.m. pr a.m.
- What time would it be if there was an acute angle and the hour hand is position at the 12? Answer = any time between 12:01 and 12:14 p.m. or a.m.

- Teachers should show students how to use a protractor to measure the exact degree of angles. Show students how to measure angles of clock hands.
- Teachers ask students to create their own clock drawing on a piece of paper. The clock face should depict an activity, hobby or interest that the student has and the time that they do the activity at. Using pencil, markers and colored pencils, student create detail in their clock and complete their drawing.
- Once the student has completed their drawing. Students use a protractor to measure the angle at which time it is when they do the activity they enjoy. Students write the angle type and degree of the angle on the back of the paper.
- Students write a small paragraph about what they like to do and why time is important in their activity.
- Teachers can display the artwork and writings and show how students learned that a clock is a common object that has angles.

### Fifth Grade

#### Core Curriculum Ties

**WRITING STANDARDS**

- Write narratives to develop real or imagined experiences or events using effective technique, descriptive details, and clear event sequences.
- Orient the reader by establishing a situation and introducing a narrator and/or characters; organize an event sequence that unfolds naturally.
- Use narrative techniques, such as dialogue, description, and pacing, to develop experiences and events or show the responses of characters to situations.
- Use a variety of transitional words, phrases, and clauses to manage the sequence of events.
- Use concrete words and phrases and sensory details to convey experiences and events precisely.
- Provide a conclusion that follows from the narrated experiences or events.

**VISUAL ARTS**

Objective 1: Explore a variety of art materials while learning new techniques and processes.

- Differentiate between foreground, middle ground, and background in the production of artwork.

- Simplify the beginning of a work of art, using start-up skills; e.g., blocking-in, gesture drawing, stick figures.

Objective 3: Handle art materials in a safe and responsible manner.

- Practice appropriate behavior with sharp or dangerous tools at all times.
- Dispose of waste materials in keeping with EPA standards and appropriate recycling methods.
- Clean and put back to order art making areas after projects.
- Respect other students' artworks as well as one's own.

#### Materials

- Images from the Art of the Timepiece exhibition as examples.
- Clock images or a working clock so that students can practice telling time.
- Protractors (for determining angle measurements)
- Lined or graph paper and pencil – for solving angle problems.
- White drawing paper for illustrations.
- Pencils, Colored Pencils, Crayons and Markers for creating illustrations.

#### Intended Learning Outcomes

- Students will learn to create a piece of work that reflects history and culture.
- Students will understand how exploration and colonization of North America impacted our nation and others.
- Students will understand how Social Studies and Visual Arts are connected through histories and cultures.
- Students will write a narrative with historical facts and will use proper grade level grammar.
- Students will create an illustration to depict their story.
- Students will respect each other’s work.

#### Instructional Procedures

- The teacher reviews the concept of time with students. Benchmark, students should be able to tell time to the nearest 1 minute using abbreviations a.m. and p.m. and understand why accurately keeping time is important.
- The teacher will display an image of their choice from the Art of the Timepiece exhibit. (should choose one that has detail and design to portray a meaning. Suggested image is pocket watch with Women and Pearls or Pocket watch with sail boat.
- Explain to students that in ancient civilizations people would use their hands to count where the sun’s position was. Then cultures invented the sundial, which was one of the first objects that told time. There were also waterclocks that used tides to tell time. These ancient inventions still work today, but we have also created new inventions like springs, batteries and transistors to make watches more accurate. Prompt students and ask them why it would be important to tell time accurately? Was time accurate even 100 years ago? (Time was somewhat accurate 100 years ago, but not nearly as accurate as it is today, now some clocks can run for 1000s of years without humans and they will only be off by a fraction of a second in 1000 years from now. These are called Accurton clocks.
- Review general history with students. This could be City, Utah, American or World history events (choose a few that pertain to your classroom teaching). Ask students if they think time mattered during these events. The answer is yes, time is always important during times of war, invention, revolution, and politics!
- Ask students to choose a historical happened based on what you are or have leared about in your class. Students will complete research about this event and write a narrative piece including relevance to time in it. Perhaps write about how Christopher Columbus sailed the Ocean and he only had a compass and the sun to help him tell time. If he had read his time incorrectly, he may have never discovered the Americas. Or perhaps it is about the World Wars, the Industrial Revolution, Invention of Cars or Train Travel.
- Students need to use correct writing standards per grade. Students should peer edit and create a final draft of their narrative. Students should correctly write time both in numerical and word form in their writings.
- Students draw an image to go along with their narrative and depict the story. Students should use art materials properly and should show that they understand how to create background, middle ground, and foreground. (Hint: place horizon line in the middleish of the paper. Things in the foreground are bigger, things in the back ground are smaller.
- Once students have completed their drawings and writings, have students share their stories of history and relevance to time.
- After students have shared their stories and drawings, post in the hallway for other students to read to the school realize why time is so important to us in many situations.

#### Assessment

- Students will learn to create a piece of work that reflects history and culture.
- Students will understand how exploration and colonization of North America impacted our nation and others.
- Students will understand how Social Studies and Visual Arts are connected through histories and cultures.
- Students will write a narrative with historical facts and will use proper grade level grammar.
- Students will create an illustration to depict their story.
- Students will respect each other’s work.

- Background Information
- Exhibit Images
- Technology for the Classroom
- Kindergarten
- First Grade
- Second Grade
- Third Grade
- Fourth Grade
- Fifth Grade

#### A.R.T.S Wasatch Back Student Art Show - What Dreams are Made Of is supported by:

# R. Harold Burton Foundation